SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is the set of techniques aimed at making a web page appear in the highest possible positions when performing a search on an online search engine.
Search engines use algorithms to evaluate the relevance of a web page to the search performed by a user.
Crawling and Indexing
Search engines use robots to crawl the web in search of public pages to include them in their search index.
In the case of Google, it is called "googlebot." To indicate that a URL should be ignored and not appear in searches, a "noindex" tag can be used.
The collection of pages that these bots have located is done in an index through which they can display them on search results pages. This is known as indexing.
In the case of Google, you can check the crawling and indexing status of your websites through their Search Console tool.
Importance Factors in SEO
There are various factors that search engines evaluate when choosing the specific ranking that a page will occupy in search results pages. Some of the most influential factors are:
The presence of keywords related to search terms (
Keywords) and their correct structure and hierarchy (presence in title tags, URL, headings, etc.) is crucial for a web page to appear in a higher or lower position in search results.
This is an indicator developed by SEOMoz that measures the relevance or popularity of a specific domain. The measure ranges from 1 to 100, and the higher it is, the more relevance search engines will give to displaying pages from this domain in search results.
The same concept as above, but instead of applying to an entire domain in general, it applies to a specific web page.
Search engines attach great importance to external links pointing to a page when evaluating its authority and importance in relation to a specific search performed by a user. Through links, as long as they are "dofollow," a page transfers part of its popularity to another, making the latter gain relevance. This is known as "link juice."
Similarly, internal links within the same website also help improve the crawling and indexing of a website by search engines.
WPO (Web Performance Optimization)
The website's loading speed, as well as user experience, is also a factor to consider if aiming to stand out in the top positions of search results.
Panda, Penguin, and Hummingbird Algorithms
Google Panda is an update to Google's algorithm that focuses on content quality. It penalizes duplicate or potentially irrelevant content, poorly written content, or content that does not provide differential value to the user.
Penguin was introduced in 2012 and evaluates the quality of external links to a website. It penalizes low-quality links, directories, paid links, or sitewide links (a link repeated on all pages of a website).
Hummingbird is not an update but a completely new algorithm that focuses on semantic search (search with less specific terms) and the Knowledge Graph, which looks for connections between different concepts to enhance search results.
White Hat SEO and Black Hat SEO, what are they?
White Hat SEO refers to SEO practices that follow the guidelines set by search engines.
Black Hat SEO refers to techniques that are not allowed by search engine algorithms. Although they may achieve short-term results, websites practicing Black Hat SEO risk receiving penalties that can lower their rankings in search results, making it an unfavorable practice.